Verbs and Types of Verb Verb are the most important component of any sentence. These words talk about the action or the state of any noun or subject. This means that verbs show what the subject is doing or what is the state or situation of the subject. It play important role in a sentence.
Verbs are words that express an action or a state of being. They are an essential part to complete a sentence. A verb is a word that tell action of a person or things. When a person or things do something , when something happens to a person or things and what a person or thing is ,that is called action and in grammar this action is called ‘Verb’.
Types of Verb
The verbs can be categorized as –
- Action Verbs
- Helping verbs or Auxiliary verbs
- Linking Verbs
A brief description of all these subtypes is give below.
1. Action verbs
These are the words which express some action or possession.
For Example: run, walk, give, take, eat and sleep etc. express action while have, own, etc. express possession.
The action verbs are further sub- categorized in two categories.
- Transitive Verb
- Intransitive Verb
A. Transitive Verbs
verb + object
A verb which is always followed by a noun that receives its action is called as Transitive Verb. This noun is called the direct object.
Example: He raised his hand when the teacher asked question.
(The verb is raised. Her hand is an object receiving the verb’s action. Therefore, raised is a transitive verb)
Another Example of Transitive Verb : The boy picks the football.
In this sentence The boy : Subject
picks : Verb
the football : Object
The boy kicks what? — the football (object)
Some more examples are Transitive verbs –
He pulled the chair.
She rode the car.
I have made these cookies
He caught the school bus.
Note : Transitive verbs sometimes have indirect objects, which name the object to whom or for whom the action was done.
Example: He gave Rosy his books.
(The verb is ‘gave’. The direct object is the books. [What did he give? the books]. The indirect object is Rosy. (To whom he gave the books)
B. Intransitive Verbs
A verb which has a direct or an indirect object. It may be followed by an adverb or adverbial phrase.
For Example: He walked out slowly from his room.
(Here the verb is walk. The words slowly from his room modify the verb. But there is no object that receives the action.)
Another Example of Intransitive verb : This girl eats.
This girl : subject
eats : verb
Some more examples are Intransitive verbs –
The baby cried.
She told a joke.
2. Linking Verbs
A linking verb is a verb which connects the subject of a sentence to a noun or adjective that describes it. The most common linking verbs are ‘to be verbs’. They don’t express any action. A linking verb is a verb which connects a subject to its predicate without expressing an action. A linking verb is used to re-identify or describe its subject.
John is a cricket fan.
The cake smells divine.
He is the President.
You seem nervous.
Functions of Linking Verbs
A linking verb connects a subject with a noun and if you’ve done it right, you can turn it around. An adjective can be in the predicated part. Know what you’re doin’, then you’ll be smart!
Look very carefully and you will see most of the verbs are forms of “be” Am, is, are, was, were
These are the past and present of the verb. Learn “seem,” “appear,” and “become,” then you will know that you are done!
As mentioned earlier, linking verbs do not express actions. So what exactly do they do? Basically, linking verbs connect the subject in the sentence with the subject complement or show a state of being/ condition.
Linking verbs may link the subject with an adjective.
Her mom was proud of her achievements.
The underlined linking verb connects the subject (mom) with the adjective (proud).
Ezekiel seemed exhausted when I saw him awhile ago.
In this example, the underlined verb links the subject (Ezekiel) with the adjective (exhausted).
Linking verbs may link the subject with a noun.
He is a mess.
The linking verb “is” connects the subject (he) with the noun (mess).
Infection appeared to be the cause of death.
The word “appeared” functions as a linking verb that connects “infection” with “cause.”
Linking verbs may link the subject with a pronoun
The handkerchief could be hers.
In this sentence, the linking verb “could be” connects the subject (handkerchief) with the pronoun “hers.”
Examples of Linking Verbs
Below is a list of linking verbs that are forms of the verb “to be” and are most commonly used in everyday communication or in writing:
might have been
Robert Langdon is a claustrophobic.
The teachers thought that the play was offensive.
They were excited for the field trip.
3. Helping verbs or Auxiliary Verbs
These are the verbs which always need a main verb to follow. They convey additional information regarding aspects of possibility (can, could, etc.)
He can’t play well.
Could I get a glass of water?
I don’t have a car.
I shall go now.
Who had won the election?
The form of the verb remains same in Simple present tense and simple future tense whereas it changes in simple past tense.
In simple past tense, verbs are categorized in two categories:
- Regular Verbs
- Irregular Verbs
Their brief description is given below:
A. Regular Verbs
These are the verbs which can be converted to their past form by adding “d” or “ed” at their end.
Examples: Walk, Talk, Play, enjoy. Their past form is walked, talked, played and enjoyed respectively.
B. Irregular Verbs
These are the verbs which cannot be converted to their past form by adding “ed” or “d” at their end.
Examples: see, eat, run, write etc. Their past form is saw, ate, ran and wrote respectively.