Mars Planet is the fourth largest planet in the Solar System. Mars Planet is the second smallest planet. Iron oxide is abundant on its surface, due to the high amount of iron oxide in its soil, Mars color is red, hence Mars is sometimes called the Red Planet. Life on mars is not possible yet. It is also called the twin planet of Earth because it has many similarities like Earth. Mars can be seen from Earth with the naked eye. In English, the mars planet is named after the Roman god. Mars planet does not have its own magnetic field.
The Red Planet Mars Planet
The Red Planet Mars Introduction
We are know the red planet mars is a planet of our solar system, so it is necessary to know about the Mars Planet.
- Name of Planet – Mars Planets also known as The Red Planet
- Gravity on the Mars Planet = 3.721 m/s²
- Surface Temperature = -87 to -5 °C
- Mars planet distance from Sun = 227.9 million km [Mars is 227.9 million km / 141.6 million mi or 1.5 AU away from the Sun. It takes sunlight about 13 minutes to reach Mars.]
- Orbital period of the red planet = 687 days
- Orbit Distance = 227,943,824 km
- Surface area of mars planet = 144.8 million km² [144798500 km2 (55907000 sq mi; 0.284 Earths)]
- Equatorial Circumference = 21,297 km
- Polar Diameter = 6,755 km
- Equatorial Diameter = 6,805 km
- Length of day on the Mars = 1d 0h 37m
- Mass = 641,693,000,000,000 billion kg (0.107 x Earth)
- Satellites (Moon) = 2
- Mars planet radius = 3.389 km or 2.105 mi (twice as small as Earth.)
It is estimated that Mars has a dense core with a radius between 930-1.300 miles / 1.500 – 2.100 kilometers. It is made up primarily of iron and nickel with about 16-17% sulfur. The iron sulfide core is thought to be twice as rich in lighter elements then Earth’s core. Mars likely has a 24- to 72-kilometer-thick crust with a very deep lithosphere close to 500 kilometers. Similar to the Earth, a low-velocity layer probably exists beneath the lithosphere. The crust of Mars is likely highly enriched in radioactive elements that help to heat this layer at the expense of the interior. The core of Mars is overlain by the rocky mantle, which, however, does not seem to have a layer analogues to the Earth’s lower mantle. The martial mantle appears to be solid down to the depth of about 500 km, where the low-velocity zone (partially melted asthenosphere) begins.
Mars Surface The Red Planet Surface
Mars is approximately half the diameter of Earth, with a surface area only slightly less than the total area of Earth’s dry land. Mars surface is also a terrestrial planet like Earth, with volcanoes to valleys, deserts and polar ice caps. Mars is a terrestrial planet whose surface consists of minerals containing silicon and oxygen, metals, and other elements that typically make up rock.
The core of Mars is overlain by the rocky mantle, which, however, does not seem to have a layer analogous to the Earth’s lower mantle.
The martial mantle appears to be solid down to the depth of about 500 km, where the low-velocity zone begins. Below the asthenosphere the velocity of seismic waves starts to grow again and at the depth of about 1050 km there lies the boundary of the transition zone. At the surface of Mars there lies a crust with the average thickness of about 24–72km.
Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure, which is less than 1% that of Earth’s, except at the lowest elevations for short periods. The two polar ice caps appear to be made largely of water. Landforms visible on Mars strongly suggest that liquid water has existed on the planet’s surface. Mars has two permanent polar ice caps. During a pole’s winter, it lies in continuous darkness, chilling the surface and causing the deposition of 25–30% of the atmosphere into slabs of CO2 ice (dry ice).When the poles are again exposed to sunlight, the frozen CO2 sublimes. These seasonal actions transport large amounts of dust and water vapor, giving rise to Earth-like frost and large cirrus clouds. Clouds of water-ice were photographed by the Opportunity rover in 2004.
There is another thing on Mars that is similar to Earth. Actually, both Earth and Mars are made of four layers. The first is the crust, which is made up of basaltic stones containing iron, and the second is the mantle, which is made of silicate stones. At the same time, the third and fourth layers are the outer core and inner core, which are believed to be made of iron and nickel, like the core of the Earth.
Orbit and Rotation
One rotation/day on Mars is completed within 24.6 hours while a whole trip around the Sun or year, is completed within 669.6 days. Martian days are called sols – short for “solar day.” A year on Mars lasts 669.6 sols, which is the same as 687 Earth days. Mars rotates on its axis, completing one revolution every 24.6 hours. The axis of Mars is tilted at 25 degrees and 12 minutes relative to its orbital plane about the Sun.
Mars is less dense than Earth, having about 15% of Earth’s volume and 11% of Earth’s mass, resulting in about 38% of Earth’s surface gravity. The scale height of the atmosphere is about 10.8 kilometers (6.7 mi), which is higher than Earth’s, 6 kilometers (3.7 mi), because the surface gravity of Mars is only about 38% of Earth’s, an effect offset by both the lower temperature and 50% higher average molecular weight of the atmosphere of Mars.
Gravitational forces are different on Earth and Mars. For this reason, if a person weighs 100 pounds on Earth, then going to Mars, his weight will be 38 pounds.
Mars Moon – Mars has two relatively small natural moons, Phobos which are about 22 kilometers (14 mi) in diameter and Deimos which are about 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) in diameter, which orbit close to the planet.
From the surface of Mars, the motions of Phobos and Deimos appear different from that of the Moon. Phobos rises in the west, sets in the east, and rises again in just 11 hours. Deimos, being only just outside synchronous orbit – where the orbital period would match the planet’s period of rotation – rises as expected in the east but slowly. Despite the 30-hour orbit of Deimos, 2.7 days elapse between its rise and set for an equatorial observer, as it slowly falls behind the rotation of Mars.
Interestingly Jonathan Swift wrote about these moons in his book “Gulliver’s Travels” – what is strange is that these moons weren’t even discovered in that period of time. They were discovered 151 years later after the book was written.
The atmosphere of Mars consists of about 96% carbon dioxide, 1.93% argon and 1.89% nitrogen along with traces of oxygen and water. The chill and dust storm on Mars is much more than on Earth. In summer, the temperature here remains around 30 °C, but in winter it drops to minus 140 °C. In such a cold, man will become fiercely of stone. It is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent of both the impact craters of Earth’s Moon, and the valleys, deserts and polar ice caps of Earth.
Fact About Mars Planet
Due to the cold and thin atmosphere here, liquid water cannot remain stable here for a long time. Mars is half that of Earth in diameter, but the area there is almost half that of Earth. There are some very high mountains and deep valleys of the solar system on this planet. The mountain named Olympus Mono is 27 km long. On the other side there is a valley called Valles Maarineries which is up to 10 km deep and up to 4000 km wide.
The largest active volcano in the Solar System is located on this planet, named Olympus Mons. Its diameter is 600 km. It sits in the form of a shield that would have been formed when the flowing lava dried up. There are many other active volcanoes as well. Scientists believe that Valles Marineris may have been formed by the stretching and spreading of the crust. There are also many valleys inside this valley which are spread over 100 km. Looking at the deep marks present on the surface of these valleys, it seems as if water must have been present here.
Due to its greater distance from the Sun, the temperature of Mars is much lower than that of Earth. The average temperature here is minus 60॰ Celsius. During the winter season there the temperature remains minus 125॰ Celsius. Carbon dioxide gas is predominant in the atmosphere here and is 100 times less dense than Earth. Carbon dioxide gas accumulates during the winter season.
Distance from Earth
The farthest distance from Earth is 401 million km / 249 million mi, and its closest distance to us can be 54.6 million km / 34 million mi, while the average distance is 225 million km / 140 million mi.
Life on Mars
On June 7, 2018, NASA announced that the Curiosity rover had discovered organic compounds in sedimentary rocks dating to three billion years old, indicating that some of the building blocks for life were present.
In July 2018, scientists reported the discovery of a sub-glacial lake on Mars, the first known stable body of water on the planet. It sits 1.5 km (0.9 mi) below the surface at the base of the southern polar ice cap and is about 20 km (12 mi) wide. Out of all the planets in the Solar System, Mars appears to have the highest change of having life forms but still the conditions are harsh enough that nothing should be able to survive there, perhaps only beneath the surface.
Still, regardless of its habitability now, Mars was definitely once a planet filled with oceans and the right conditions of life. Most people would be happy if we could only find evidence of life that may have existed on the Red Planet.