Prepositions List | Prepositional Phrase

Prepositions Prepositions List Prepositional Phrase A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between the noun or pronoun that follows it (its object) and the word or group of words that come before it (its antecedent).
Example: “He is walking on the bridge.” “He is walking” is an independent clause that could stand alone. The phrase “on the bridge” (an adverbial phrase) gives information about where he is walking. The preposition “on” shows the relationship between the verb phrase “is walking” and the noun “bridge.” He is walking “on” the bridge, not “under” the bridge, “over” the bridge, or “beside” the bridge.

Prepositions | Prepositions List | Prepositional Phrase

Notice in the preceding sentence that the preposition “on” comes before the noun “bridge.” In English, a preposition usually comes before the noun or pronoun that serves as its object. It occupies the “pre-position,” that is, the “before-position.” It is called “preposition” because it is usually placed before a noun or pronoun.

Prepositions show relationships between nouns/pronouns and other words in a sentence.

As we have noted, a preposition shows the relationship between its object and its antecedent.

Prepositions indicate a relationship that tells you where something is or when something happened.

Are they behind us?
Will they be arriving in one hour or at noon?

Prepositions can also show more abstract ideas such as contrast.
We wanted to go for a run except we were too tired

prepositions meaning and examples

prepositions definition

A preposition is the word that which comes before noun or a pronoun to till its relation with another word.

Ex – Ravi is in the room.
In this example in is a preposition which show that Ravi relation with the room.
Types of Preposition – 
1. In/Into (में)
In – already in (अंदर की स्थिति)
Into – outside to inside with motion (बाहर से अंदर की स्थिति में गति के साथ)
Ex – The boy in the classroom.
The child jumped into the river.
In the first example the boy already in the class room, in second example child went in river with motion.
 
2. On/Upon (पर)
On – same position (एक समान स्थिति में) on is used in speaking of things at rest.
Upon – Stability after speed (गति के बाद स्थिरता) upon is used in speaking of things in motion.
Ex – The husband was sitting calmly on sofa.
– His angry wife punched upon him.
– There is a book on the table. 
In this example book is in same position.
– I threw a book upon the table.
(Stability after motion)
 
3. Above/Over (ऊपर)
Above – Oblique (तिर्यक)
Over – Vertical (लम्बवत)
In small surface we can use both above and over. But in big surface we use only above.
Ex – The sky is above us.
– The sun shines over us at noon.
 
4. With/by (के द्वारा/से)
With – non living (निर्जीव के द्वारा) with refers to instrument with which action is done.
By – living being (सजीव के द्वारा) By is used to express tge agent or doer of an action.
Ex – He was killed by a terrorist with a gun.
– The politician was attacked by the mob with stones.
– The child was beaten by his father with a stick.
Note : but we put ‘by’ for powerful agents like Fire, Steam, Electricity.
Ex – His house was destroyed by fire.
 
5. Between/Among (in the middle of के बीच)
Between – for two thing or person (दो)
Among – for more than two (दो से अधिक)
Ex –Distribute sweets between the two boys.
– Distribute sweets among the three boys.
Note : If noun or pronoun comes after between they are combine by the ‘and’.
यदि between के बाद noun या pronoun अलग-अलग आये तो वे and से जुड़े रहेंगे।
Ex – You can meet me between 4 pm to 6 pm. (×)
– You can meet me between 4 pm and 6 pm. (√)
 
6. Among/Amongst – (के बीच) only countable noun
Amid/Amidst – uncountable noun + countable noun
इन चारों का प्रयोग एक समान होता है। अन्तर यह है कि Amid और Amidst, countable noun और uncountable दोनो noun के साथ आता है। जबकि Among और Amongst केवल countable के साथ आता है।
The use of these four is the same. But the main different are Amid and Amidst use for countable and uncountable noun. While Among and Amongst use in only countable noun.
Ex – Distribute these books among/amongst/amid/amidst poor children.
– Amid/Amidst uproar, the bill was passed. (शोरगुल के बीच विधेयक पारित हुआ।)
 
7. Beside/Besides
Beside – on one side (बगल में) beside mean the side of, or outside of.
Besides – except (के अतिरिक्त) besides means in addition to.
Ex – Ram sat beside me. (राम मेरी बगल में बैठ गया।)
– The couple sat beside each-other. (Sat along side)
– There were three of us besides Ravi. (In addition to)
– Besides Spanish, I can teach English. (स्पेनिश के अतिरिक्त मैं अंग्रेजी भी पढ़ा सकता हूँ।)
 
8. Through –  moving in one side and out of the other side of (an opening, channel, or location). (से होकर, के माध्यम से)
Ex – I got this news through Ram.
 
9. In spite of/Despite – (के बावजूद)
Ex – In spite of/Despite hard work he failed. (परिश्रम के बावजूद भी वह असफल हो गया।)
 
10. In/Within
In – on time (समय पूर्ण होने पर)
Within – within time (समय के अंदर)
In a month (एक महीना पूर्ण होने पर)
Within a month (एक महीने के अन्दर)
 
11. In the
Ex – in the morning/evening/afternoon
At – at is used with small places and areas like towns and village. It is also used before a definite point of time.
Ex – Clock time, down, dust, noon, night
On – day and date
I came here at 5 ‘o’ clock in the morning on Sunday.
In – in is used with countries and large places and cities. It also used before a period of tine. before moth, year
Ex – in July 2020
– I live at Lajpat Colony in Mumbai.
– See me at seven ‘o’ clock in the evening.
– My friend is in the U.S.A.
– The final battle was fought at panipat.
 
12. During – (के दौरान)
Note : (i) if name, day, date of time connect with of then we use ‘on’ before the time.
Ex  He went on the morning of sunday.
(ii) if use of ‘this, last, next’ before the time than no use of preposition.
Ex  He will go on sunday. (√)
– He will go next sunday. (√)
– He will go on sunday next. (√)
– He will go on next sunday. (×)
 
13. After/In –
After generally refers to a period of time in the past.
In generally refers to a period of time in future.
Ex  My father returned home after a month. (has returned)
– My father will return home in a month. (still return)
 
14. Since/For
Since denote a point of time.
For denote a period of time.
Ex – I have lived in this house since 1979.
– I have lived in this house fir twenty seven year.
 

Rule to put prepositions

Rule : Preposition not used with some word because they are used in preposition itself. Considering (विचार करते हुए), Concerning, regarding (संबंधित), during, not with (के बावजूद), standing, including, excluding (छोड़कर), pending (लम्बित), Barring (छोड़कर)
उपरोक्त के साथ preposition नही लगता है। क्योंकि ये स्वयं ही preposition का कार्य करते है।
Ex – Considering about (×) your qualities, I can say.
Note : Preposition not used with transitive verb. Transitive verb के साथ preposition नही लगता है।
Ex – He abused Mohan. (उसने मोहन को गाली दी।)
– You will invite Ram. (आमंत्रित करेगे।)
 
Rule Preposition not used in following words
Attack – (पर) आक्रमण करना
Describe – (के बारे में) वर्णन करना।
Discuss – (के ऊपर/के बारे में) बहस करना। with से बहस करना
Climb (up) – (पर) चढ़ना, Enter – (में) प्रवेश करना, Comprise – (से) बना होना, Love – (से) प्रेम करना, Order – (का) आदेश देना, Hate – (से) घृणा, Tell – (से) बताना, Marry – (से) विवाह करना, Resemble – (से) मेल खाना, Sign – (पर) हस्ताक्षर करना, Select – (को) चुनना, Ask – (से) पूछना
उपरोक्त शब्दो में preposition का प्रयोग नही किया जाता है।
Ex – Ram attacked on Shyam. (×)
– Ram attacked Shyam. (√) 
Note : Read and understand following word carefully.
– They attack on (×) her. (वे उस पर हमला करते है।)
– They attack on (√) her is severely criticized. (उस पर उनके हमले की कड़ी निंदा की जाती है।)
– Ravi entered into (√) an agreement with us. (रवि में मेरे साथ एक समझौता किया।)
– Jhon married to (×) Maria. (जॉन ने मारिया से विवाह किया।)
– Jhon was married to Maria. (जॉन मारिया से विवाहित है।)
– I love for (×) English. (मैं अंग्रेजी से प्रेम करता हूँ।)
 
Rule : In the following situation preposition comes in the last. (निम्नलिखित परिस्थितियों में preposition वाक्य के अंत मे लगता है।)
(i) If preposition  connected by interrogative (यदि preposition, interrogative से जुड़ा हो।)
Ex – In which class do you read? (√)
– Which class do you read in? (√)
(ii) If preposition connected by Relative pronoun and Relative pronoun elimination. (यदि preposition, relative pronoun से जुड़ा हो और relative pronoun का विलोपन हो जाये।)
Ex – This is the boy about whom I was talking. (√) (यह वही लड़का है, जिसके बारे में मैं बात कर रहा था।)
– This is the boy that I was talking about. (√)
 
Read the following sentence :
– I am afraid of the result. (√)
– I am afraid that he will not cone. (√)
– He insists on going to Mumbai. (√)
– He insists that he will go to Mumbai. (√)
 
Rule : Order, verb तथा noun दोनों ही verb के रूप में यह एक Transitive verb है। जिसका अर्थ आदेश देना होता है। इसलिए इसके साथ preposition नही लगता है।
Ex – I ordered for (×) nothing.
– I ordered nothing. (√)
– I gave the order for nothing. (√)
Note : I shall present Mohan with a book. (मैं मोहन को एक पुस्तक भेंट करूँगा।)
– He will provide me with a pen. (वह मुझे कलम उपलब्ध करेगा।)
* Factor एक singular countable noun है। इसमें पहले article लगेगा।
 
Rule : Single clause में यदि before या already (पहले ही) तथा till/by (तक) आ जाये तो past indefinite नही बल्कि past perfect का प्रयोग होता है।
Ex – I had already brought a book. (मैं पहले से ही एक पुस्तक खरीद चुका था।)
– Martin had written an essay till/by 4 ‘o’ clock. (मार्टिन 4 बजे तक एक निबंध लिख चुका था।)
Note – David has gone to Brazil. (डेविड ब्राज़ील गया है।)
– David has been to Brazil. (डेविड ब्राज़ील हो आया है।)
– He went to Brazil. (√)
– He went a broad/home. (adv. of place)
– He went to his home. (√)
 
Rule : Preposition only used when relative word comes. (Preposition तभी लगता है जब संबंधित शब्द आये।)
Ex – I am afraid of dog. (√) (मैं कुत्तों से भयभीत हूँ।)
– I am afraid of (×) that he will not come. (मझे डर है कि वह नही आयेगा।)
– John is confident of your success. (जॉन आपकी सफलता के प्रति निश्चित है।)
 
Rule : “Invite” के साथ preposition ‘to’ का प्रयोग होता है।
Ex – We have not invited for lunch. (×)
– We have not invited to lunch. (√)

Prepositions Examples

Prepositions of Direction

Direction (down, from, into, out of, through, to, toward)

  • The tire rolled down the hill.
  • The truck drives around the city.
  • Meet me at the stop sign

Prepositions of Location

Location (behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, in, inside, near, off, on, over, past, under, upon, and within)

  • The puppy runs through the park.
  • The puppy is in the bowl.
  • The puppy is beside the soccer ball.

Prepositions of Association

Association (with, of, as, without)

  • During the rainstorm, I splashed around in my yellow rain boots.
  • For many of us, it is a struggle to get up before noon.
  • Within an egg, one can find the yolk.

Others indicate a relationship of time (after, at, before, during). “She left at three o’clock.”

Others suggest a relationship of manner (by, like, with). “They travel by bus.”

Others show a relationship of agency (through, by, with). “That computer was made by IBM.”

THE PREPOSITIONALS PHRASE

A prepositional phrase is a phrase that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun. A prepositional phrase usually ends with a noun.

prepositionals phrase examples

“John saw a vision of his passed away mother in his dream.”
“Governor addressed to the people.”

On the other hand, a prepositional phrase may end with a pronoun.

Examples: “My children turned against me.”
“The headteacher put all our guilt on him.”

A prepositional phrase may serve as an adjective by telling more about a noun or pronoun.
Example: “John D. Rockefeller was a man of wealth.”
“Of wealth” means “wealthy.” It modifies the noun “man.” It serves, therefore, as an adjective.

A prepositional phrase may also serve as an adverb by telling more about a verb, adjective, or another adverb.
Example: “Go and talk to the people.”
In this sentence, the prepositional phrase “to the people” modifies the verb “talk.” It functions, therefore, as an adverb.

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