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NCERT SOLUTIONS FOR CLASS 8 ENGLISH HONEYDEW
Glimpses of the Past
All Question and Answers
1. Look at picture 1 and recall the opening lines of the original song in Hindi. Who is the singer? Who else do you see in this picture?
Answer – The opening lines of the Hindi Song are “Aye Mere Waten Ke Logon, Turn Khub Logo Nara: Ye Shubh Din Hai Hum Sab Ka Lehralo Tiranga Pyara, Par Mat Bhulo Seema Par Veron Ne Hain Pran Gawayen.” It was sung by Lata Mangeskar. We see Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, Lai Bahadur Shastri and Mrs. Indira Gandhi in this picture.
2. In picture 2 what do you understand by the Company’s ‘superior weapons?
Answer – The East India Company conquered India by using their superior weapons, guns and diplomacy.
3. Who is an artisan? Why do you think the artisans suffered? (Picture 3)
Answer – An artisan is a craftsman, skilled in some trade. They suffered because the goods that they produced lost demand in the Indian market.
4. Which picture, according to you, reveals the first sparks of the fire of revolt?
Answer – Picture 7 reveals the first spark of the fire of revolt.
Working With the Text
Answer the following questions.
1. Do you think the Indian princes were short-sighted in their approach to the events of 1757?
Answer – Yes, the Indian princes were short-sighted in their approach. They fought against each other with the help of the British. Thus the British became the virtual rulers.
2. How did the East India Company subdue the Indian princes?
Answer – The East India company spread its wings in India to promote their trade. They supported one Indian Prince to finish the other. As a result, power passed onto their hands.
3. Quote the words used by Ram Mohan Roy to say that every religion teaches the same principles.
Answer – The words of Ram Mohan Roy spoken to his wife were: “Cows are of different colours, but the colour of their milk is the same. Different teachers have different opinions but the essence of every religion is the same.”
4. In what ways did the British officers exploit Indians?
Answer – The British rulers passed a resolution under which an Indian could be sent to jail without trial in a court. The goods manufactured in England were exempted from customs duty. The officers prospered on the company’s loot and their private business flourished.
5. Name these people.
(i) The ruler who fought pitched battles against the British and died fighting.
(ii) The person who wanted to reform the society.
(iii) The person who recommended the introduction of English education in India.
(iv) Two popular leaders who led the revolt (Choices may vary.)
(i) The ruler who fought pitched battles against the British and died fighting – Tipu Sultan of Mysore
(ii) The person who wanted to reform the society – Raja Ram Mohan Roy of Bengal
(iii) The person who recommended the introduction of English education in India – Lord Macaulay
(iv) Two popular leaders who led the revolt (Choices may vary.) – Nana Sahib Peshwa, Kunwar Singh, Begum Hazrat Mahal
6. Mention the following.
(i) Two examples of social practices prevailing then.
Answer – Untouchability and child marriage.
(ii) Two oppressive policies of the British.
Answer – The British masters allowed imports in India tax-free. They ruined Indian cottage industries,
(iii) Two ways in which common people suffered.
Answer – The farmers were taxed heavily and the thumbs of skilled workers were cut.
(iv) Four reasons for the discontent that led to the 1857 War of Independence.
Answer – (a) Santhals who lost their land became desperate and they revolted.
(b) The sepoys in the English army were paid much less than the white soldiers. So they were discontented and angry.
(c) The Brahmins were furious when they came to know that the bullets they had to bite, contained cow fat and pig fat.
(d) Many landlords were sore because the British policies deprived them of their land and estate.
Working With Language
In comics what the characters speak is put in bubbles. This is direct narration. When we report what the characters speak, we use the method of indirect narration.
Study these examples.
First farmer: Why are your men taking away the entire crop?
Second farmer: Your men have taken away everything.
Officer: You are still in arrears. If you don’t pay tax next week, I’ll send you to jail.
- The first farmer asked the officer why his men were taking away the entire crop.
- The second farmer said that their men had taken away everything.
- The officer replied that they were still in arrears and warned them that if they did not pay tax the following week, he (the officer) would send them (the farmers) to jail.
1. Change the following sentences into indirect speech.
(i) First man: We must educate our brothers.
Second man: And try to improve their material conditions.
Third man: For that we must convey our grievances to the British Parliament.
The first man said that ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
The second man added that __________________________________________________________________________________________________________
The third man suggested that _________________________________________________________________________________________________________
The first man said that they must educate their brothers.
The second man added that should try to improve their material conditions,
The third man suggested that they must convey their grievances to the British Parliament.
(ii) First soldier: The white soldier gets huge pay, mansions and servants.
Second soldier: We get a pittance and slow promotions.
Third soldier: Who are the British to abolish our customs?
The first soldier said that ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
The second soldier remarked that ____________________________________________________________________________________________________
The third soldier asked ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
The first soldier said that the white soldier got huge pay, mansions and servants.
The second soldier remarked that they got a pittance and slow, promotions.
The third soldier asked who the British were to abolish their customs.
Speaking and Writing
1. Playact the role of farmers who have grievances against the policies of the government. Rewrite their ‘speech bubbles’ in dialogue form first.
2. Look at the pictures.
(i) Ask one another questions about the pictures.
Where is the fox?
Answer – The fox is in the well.
How did it happen?
Answer – She fell into the well by accident.
What is the fox thinking?
Answer – The fox thinks how to get out of there.
Who is the visitor?
Answer – The visitor is a goat.
What does she want to know?
Answer – She wants to know whether the water is sweet.
What is the fox’s reply?
Answer – The fox replies that the water is very sweet and she had a lot of it.
What happens next?
Answer – The goat wanted to taste the water.
Where is the goat?
Answer – The goat wanted to taste the water.
Where is the fox now?
Answer – The fox comes out of the well.
What is the goat thinking?
Answer – The goat is thinking of her mother’s advice not to trust any stranger.
(ii) Write the story in your own words. Give it a title.
Answer – Once a fox fell into a well accidentally. She thought about how to get out of the well. A goat arrived there by chance. She looked into the well. She asked the fox if the water was sweet. The cunning fox played a trick. She told a lie that the water was very, very sweet, and she had had enough of it. The foolish goat also wanted to taste the water. The fox invited her into the well. The goat reached there soon. Now the fox rode on the goat’s back and climbed out of the well. Then she thanked the goat for help. The goat was reminded of her mother’s words that she must never go by the advice of a stranger.
3. Read the following news item.
History becomes fun at this school
Mumbai: Students in the sixth grade of a certain school in Navi Mumbai love their history lessons thanks to a novel teaching aid. It is not surprising given the fact that their study material includes comic books and they use their textbooks for reference to put things into perspective. Besides, students are encouraged to tap other sources of information as well. During history classes,
students pore over comic strips of historical periods, enact characters of emperors and tyrants, and have animated discussions on the subject. History has become fun.
In the class students are asked to read the comic strip aloud, after which they break up into groups of four, discuss what they have heard and write a summary. Each group leader reads his group’s summary aloud and the whole class jumps into discussion and debate, adding points, disagreeing
and qualifying points of view. A sixth grade student says, “It’s a lot of fun because everyone gets a chance to express themselves and the summary takes everyone’s ideas into account.”
According to the school principal the comic strip format and visuals appeal to students. A historian feels that using comics in schools is a great idea. Comics and acting help students understand what characters in the story are actually thinking.
(adapted from The Times of India, New Delhi, October 2007)
Based on this news item, write a paragraph on what you think about this new method of teaching history.
4. Find the chapters in your history book that correspond to the episodes and events described in this comic. Note how the information contained in a few chapters of history has been condensed to a few pages with the help of pictures and ‘speech bubbles’.
5. Create a comic of your own using this story.
Once the Sun and the Wind began to quarrel, each one saying that he was stronger than the other. At last they decided to test each other’s strength. A man with a cloak around his shoulders was passing by. The Wind boasted, “Using my strength I can make that man take off the cloak.” The Sun agreed. The Wind blew hard. The man felt so cold that he clasped his cloak round his body as tightly as possible. Now it was the turn of the Sun which shone very hot indeed. The man felt so hot that he at once removed the cloak from his body. Seeing the man taking off the cloak, the Wind conceded defeat.